The findings further revealed that when using a 25 nm SiO2 nanocatalyst, a maximum viscosity reduction of 98. The main characteristics of viscous oils are discussed to highlight the oil properties that affect their flowability in the processes of recovery and pipeline transportation. A water reservoir and a deep water well producing from it constitute a hydraulic system connected in series. In the present paper the laws of interaction are given for production planning in the case of free flowing and airlift water production. The geometry of a reactor is produced using commercial software, and some experiments are performed to examine the validity and accuracy of the numerical results. The work is especially focused on the heavy oils, while other hydrocarbon solid sources, such as oil sands and shale oil, are outside of the scope of this review. Results show that type of catalyst and concentration of catalyst are the parameters that influence the viscosity reduction of extra heavy crude oil the most.
The grid-shell theory seems to be adequate to interpret these characteristics. The selection and operation of equipment is often loosely bound to the reservoir engineering project and mostly consists of a series of isolated problem solutions. Flow mechanics and production -- pt. It is generally accepted that the oil and gas-bearing subsurface reservoir can be considered as a system, from both a material and hydraulic point of view. That means the number, location, and sometimes the production forecast of the wells are fixed. Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier ; New York, N. The mixture of two different oils or petroleum products will result in a product in which the flow properties will be between those of the initial components Szilas, 1986.
These resources are composed usually of viscous oils and, for this reason, their use requires additional efforts to guarantee the viability of the oil recovery from the reservoir and its subsequent transportation to production wells and to ports and refineries. Part B published: Budapest : Akadémiai Kiadó. It should be realized with minimum overall investment, taking into account the other influencing circumstances. Using a numerical example, the author demonstrates how the airlift of a water well producing gas-free water is to be planned with a minimum of specific air consumption. Accordingly, it is essential to reduce the viscosity of heavy and extra heavy crude oil through in-situ operations or immediate actions after extraction to reduce costs. Description: 1 online resource 2 volumes : illustrations.
In all cases their compositions depend upon their source, history, and present thermodynamic conditions. . Chemical composition is the starting point for the oil characterization and it has major impact on other properties, including key properties for their dynamics, such as density and viscosity. In this study, the cracking of extra heavy crude oil using computational fluid dynamics is simulated, and a unique kinetic model is proposed based on experimental procedures to predict the behavior of extra heavy crude oil cracking reaction. These results have been obtained using numerical software developed by the author. This concept is used routinely and effectively by reservoir engineers in calculating, for example, the ultimate oil recovery, assuming various recovery methods.
Also, a catalyst concentration of 2. The E-mail message field is required. Furthermore, to investigate the main factors affecting the process, sensitivity analysis is adopted. This system planning terminates in most cases at the bottom of the wells, however. This review describes the main properties of high-viscosity crude oils, as well as compares traditional and emergent methods for their recovery and transportation.
The basic directions of application of new technologies and technique for gathering, transport, treating of oil and gas are considered. Limitations to the use of dilution in the transport of heavy oils are imposed by the increasing scarcity of light oils and diluents and their high market values. High viscosity and low flowability complicate the transportation of heavy and extra heavy crude oil. The pressure head transverse between every two pump stations and the effect of flow rate on the pipeline overall pressure losses during operating conditions were studied. Regarding the growth of global energy consumption and the paucity of light crude oil, extracting and using heavy and extra heavy crude oil has received much more attention, but the application of this kind of oil is complicated due to its very high molecular weight. The hydraulic calculations of any pipeline transporting crude oil highly depend on the rheological properties of the crude and the thermal conditions of the pipeline.
Their distribution within a given reservoir depends upon the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir as well as the petrophysical properties of the rocks and the physical and chemical properties of the fluids themselves. Oil companies have expressed interest in unconventional oil as alternative resources for the energy supply. Moreover, the hydrodynamics and heat transfer of the system and influence of nanocatalysts and temperature on the upgrading of crude oil are studied. The prescribed amount of water to be produced most economically may be planned and withdrawn only if the elements of the system and the laws of their interaction are known. Equations proposed to represent the viscositytemperature relationship are commonly of logarithmical or double logarithmical forms. The rate of this reduction is greater in lower temperatures Szilas, 1986.
The results obtained through sensitivity analysis, simulation model, and experiments represent effectual information for the design and development of high performance upgrading processes for energy applications. Due to the addition of light oils or solvents, the loss of frictional pressure is reduced. But generally the reservoir engineering project does not include technical or economic data referring to the well and surface production equipment. Other Titles: Kőolaj és földgáztermelés. Numerical simulations are influential methods, because they reduce calculation time and costs. Experimental measurements were carried out to correlate rheological properties of Nile blend with temperature within temperature ranges at which Nile blend exhibits Newtonian, non-Newtonian, and solidification behaviours.
The findings reveal that there is a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. The required restarting pressure of every kilometre length has also been studied taking into consideration the possibility of crude solidification. In addition, the main challenges to achieve viable recovery and transportation of unconventional oils are compared for the different alternatives proposed. Pressure losses within every kilometre length of the pipeline at different flow behaviours during the pipeline operation have been studied and analysed. Based on this finding, the addition of less viscous crude oils and fractions of distilled petroleum such as condensate, gasoline, kerosene or naphtha to viscous oils has been proposed to reduce the viscosity to acceptable levels for pumping Nuñez et al.
Reservoir fluids refer to those fluids held in reservoir rocks under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure. The developed correlations were used to describe the hydraulic conditions within each kilometre length of the pipeline during operation and the pressure difference required for restarting and flushing every kilometre length of the pipeline after specified shutdown time. Production and transport of oil and gas. The planning with respect to investments and operating conditions should be flexible, allowing systematic improvement. Some rheological phenomena of the thixotropic pseudoplastic crude oils can not be accounted for by the earlier theories: e.