The last section of the article suggests several future avenues of research that could further refine the study of ethnic cleansing and its relationship to other types of mass violence. When violence is comparatively analysed on these three interrelated levels, it becomes clear that the scale of collective brutality gradually and dramatically increases with the rise of modern social organizations and ideologies while the character of inter-personal and intra-group violence remains essentially constant. In short, the challenge in theoretical terms lies in the dynamics of systems transformation. In ethnic conflicts, psychocultural dramas arise over competing claims that evoke deeply rooted dimensions of the conflict which cannot be settled by reference to more general rules or higher authority. Political extremism is one of the most pernicious, destructive, and nihilistic forms of human expression. In this chapter, we analyze how this trend in average state size affects interstate conflict. Introduction The humanitarian tragedy of large-scale armed conflict continues to be part of human experience leaving a tremendous demographic, social, economic, and health impact on societies.
These political structures certainly are not foolproof as demonstrated by the recent contours of American politics; nevertheless, they can yield considered responses that avoid the enormities frequently committed by extremist movements. Midlarsky is the Moses and Annuta Back Professor of International Peace and Conflict Resolution at Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Flores Cervantes and Kalton 2008 present a review of the sampling methods for such populations in the context of telephone surveys and Elliott, Finch, Klein, Ma, Do, Beckett et al. They are anti-pluralist to the core;. Certainly, this experience, among other more personal sources, led to his sanguinary policies. Introduction: In a world of finite resources, states occasionally use or threaten force to coerce what they cannot obtain more expediently through bargain or barter.
In contrast to the three dominant perspectives, I argue that the 21st-century organisation of military violence has changed but it still exhibits much more organisational continuity with the last two centuries than usually assumed. Variations in genocidal behavior; Part V. These classes are subdivided according to the social perspective taken, i. It is well-possible, however, that the relationship between radicalism and societal pessimism is bidirectional. This newly formed great power was to be the continental hegemon for much of the period leading up to World War I. In contrast, for pluralists there is no one general rule to resolve moral conflicts, and freedom is simply the absence of interference. If one wants to understand political extremism, he contends, one needs first to get a handle on the political extremists.
Yet, comparable studies that focus on ethnic cleansing are still rare. Bursting on to the scene in the interwar years, the social democratic model spread across Europe after the Second World War and formed the basis of the postwar settlement. Rational choice theory, especially game theory, should be seen as complementary to interpretivist approaches rather than as their rivals. Here, we propose to use the dyad as the principal unit of analysis, but examine each of the actor's diachronically as they interact with each other. Analyzing these actions, then, involves situating this violence and destruction in their economic, political, and ideological milieu as these have developed historically, for this so-called Islamic terrorism does not merely arise, ex nihilo, out of a timeless void. Demographic analysis uses vital records in aggregate calculations.
This work is an amplification and extension of Cambridge University Press, 2005. In this article, we examine psychological features of extreme political ideologies. The specific findings of this study yield moral considerations. The methods have different data requirements, so not every country has the data needed to apply each one. These negativity and positivity effects, taken to be manifestations of informativeness effects, are examined in the areas of vocal productivity, disclosure, and initial interaction. Also, non-pluralists cannot show that they have identified the general rule for resolving moral conflicts, and in particular, are forced to rely on quite different principles altogether when justifying paternalistic responses to extremism. Support for extremist content and online exposure to extremist content are strong predictors, and function as different routes towards political aggression.
Persons who are homeless are very unlikely to be reached by a survey that uses random digit dialing, for example. This was certainly a basis for the rise of fascism, especially in its virulent Nazi form. These three theories—class, civil society, and rational choice—may explain the rise of Italian Fascism, 1919— 21, but a fuller understanding of the explanations re-quires a clear statement of the hypotheses and the con-struction of adequate measures. In the case of Germany, for example, his figure p. Moreover, we find a similar linkage between ideology and economic evaluations.
The regimes and movements that embody extremism have a singular view of the world. Midlarsky applies his framework to multiple forms of political extremism including the rise of Italian, Hungarian and Romanian fascism, Nazism, radical Islamism, and Soviet, Chinese and Cambodian communism. Midlarsky's work will help students of political extremism and mass violence better describe, explain, and even modestly predict these murderous phenomena. The current literature on mass killing emphasizes leaders' ideals and strategies rather than preexisting prejudices and deep divisions in the population Straus 2007. We argue that a psychological distress stimulates adopting an extreme ideological outlook; b extreme ideologies are characterized by a relatively simplistic, black-and-white perception of the social world; c because of such mental simplicity, political extremists are overconfident in their judgments; and d political extremists are less tolerant of different groups and opinions than political moderates. People with learning disabilities - and their parents and carers - were much keener to answer questions about their own situation than expected Stoop and Harrison, 2012a.
Most Pakistanis have not in the past been susceptible to Islamic extremism; rather, religion has been largely a cloak to hide the individual and class interests of the elite, who have promoted, nurtured and supported religious extremism to advance their personal and class interests. Especially for best friend and emotionally expressive couples, sexual problems destroy marital viability. Introduction In survey sampling, some populations are hard to reach because they happen to be hard to survey. During the 20th century, in excess of 100 million people had their lives taken from them as the result of extremist violence. In this age of extremes, Midlarsky's masterful volume carefully guides us through what motivates and drives people to political violence; highlighting - as only an experienced scholar can - the key unifying elements in otherwise disparate-seeming cases across time and space. We hypothesize that whether as rebel or government, when an actor engaged in intrastate conflict experiences an ephemeral gain, it is more likely to prolong the conflict.