The subject was required to do a common modern dance torso movement set to music, that started with an arch, and rolled through side bend to a forward curve with a demi-plié , and back up to vertical with legs straightening, and arms lifting to second position. The use of imagery by dance teachers--development and implementation of two research instruments. Each of the three training groups met for 1 hour, 3 times per week, for 8 weeks. If highly variable responses within subjects or differential responses between subjects are more the rule than the exception, as data from this study suggest, single subject or within subject designs and analyses could yield more usable information. This form, sometimes called metaphorical imagery, is the representation of the desired movement with a figure or likeness.
Thus, for Condition 1, Trial 1, Section 1, the score C1T1S1 would be the sum of absolute values of horizontal displacements of the markers: m3 - m1 + m4 - m1 + m5 - m1 + m6 - m1 + m7 - m1 , where the raw data collected were: foot marker, m1; trochanter marker, m3; iliac marker m4; rib marker, m5; acromion marker, m6; and ear marker, m7. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 17, 89-100. Although there were 8 weeks between testing periods, subjects commented about the ease of learning the phrase the second time. Table 4 displays the means and standard deviations for the four groups in the two conditions, with sections, pre-tests and post-tests collapsed. Interrelationship of neurological and mechanical factors in balance control. After calculating the pre- and post-test group means for each section for both conditions, these means were displayed graphically.
Substantial research has been done, however, in sport science and movement studies examining the role of imagery and mental practice in improving motor skills. It is this reversal of direction by group 2, along with the large improvement by group 4, that accounts for the significant time by group interaction. However, there were no significant results for the main effects of group and time, or for any interactions. Subjects were dressed in long-sleeved, black leotards and tights, and black socks. Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance, 14 2 , 27-38. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24 9 , 1059-1065.
The Pilates method of physical and mental conditioning. Research: The validation of clinical practice 2nd ed. Nineteen of the volunteers were determined to be suitable for the study. Further research into systems that combine conditioning work with visualization work is recommended. Ideokinesis, mental rehearsal and relaxation applied to dance technique Master's thesis, University of Oregon, 1983. Hall, 1993 , and only those with moderate to high imaging abilities were included in the study. Thus, the subject was required to establish vertical, central alignment, not in quiet stance but as a reference point out of an off-center movement directly into the plié.
Sweigard was a leading authority on posture and movement. The scores were determined in the following way: To quantify the horizontal displacement of the markers in relation to the plumb line, the absolute value of differences in X-coordinates between marker 1 and the markers 3-7 on the body were calculated and added. Basic concepts -- Structural components of body alignment and movement -- Physical laws and principles of mechanics -- The lever as the machine for movement -- The pelvis -- The spinal column -- The femur and femoral joint -- The knee and leg -- The ankle joint and foot -- The upper extremity -- The rib-case and diaphragm -- pt. The lowest group means indicating best performance occurred in C1S1 Condition 1, Section 1 , C1S3, and C2S3, which were moments of quiet stance at the beginning and end of the plié. The subjective comments of these subjects may offer some insight into these results.
In Human Movement Potential: Its Ideokinetic Facilitation, Dr. Thus, increases in scores could be expected from the 8 weeks of daily dance classes and rehearsals during the winter quarter. In cases where the midpoints of the two metatarsal lines did not establish a line parallel to the heel line, due to uneven turnout, an average of the two was used. Changes in posture control across the life span--a systems approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 61 2 , 28-29.
Markers 2 and 8, the reference points, used to calibrate the camera system, and to ensure that a true perpendicular line was established, were not included in these calculations. It also seems advisable to have a sample with a more consistent level of activity, that is, a similar number and type of classes and rehearsals each week. To date, few measures have been designed for dance research which attempt to quantify and score various aspects of dance performance, such as full body involvement in movement, body integration and connectedness, articulation of joints and body segments, and movement skills. In addition to rating the subjects in the four categories, each subject was given an overall proficiency rating See Appendix A. When dance science and somatics enter the dance technique class. There is a consensus, however, that one of the major obstacles to arriving at clear results is the lack of a coherent, sophisticated method to evaluate improvements in the area of the quality of dance performance.
The next three trials were done with music playing and following an extreme range-of-motion, off-center torso movement, in order to record how the subject's alignment was altered in a situation similar to an actual dance environment. The standard reference points for assessing vertical, central alignment, as discussed in kinesiology and dance literature, were used to place the reflective markers on the subjects. The muscle engine -- Muscles at work -- Principles of muscle function -- The role of the nervous system in movement -- pt. While examining alignment in quiet stance may provide some useful insights, it is also crucial that researchers explore methods of analyzing alignment while the body is in motion, and ideally, in movement that closely simulates the dancer's activities in class, rehearsal, and performance. General categories of conditioning include muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 7, 25-29.
In particular, they subjectively experienced improvements in alignment during the training sessions, but they did not feel that they could sustain these changes when they moved into the dance class or rehearsal context. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 61 2 , 17. Finally, a system was designed which integrated imaging into conditioning practices for dancers, using the systems described above. Third, to evaluate the influence of conditioning-with-imaging on body alignment for dance. The author, whose method of teaching body balance and efficient movement has been the result of many years of research and teaching, offers a point of view and methodology at odds with the generally e How does movement proceed and how can it be performed with greater efficiency? At the heart of Sweigard's work is ideokinesis, which uses imaging and thought in order to produce better mechanical balance and neuromuscular coordination.